Assignments

English 1102 Honors: English Composition II, Fall 2016

Section 05H: TR 11:00-12:15PM, Bell Hall 340

In Class Activities

1. From Thought to Action

The first part of Notes from Underground focuses on the Underground Man's values while the second recounts a story of his life with his former friends and a prostitute. Today, let's continue practicing selecting and analyzing significant passages, and also discussing the dialectic of the novel, in other words, how his theories of existence are put into living practice (or, paradoxically) not. Divide into groups, find and select a passage from the second half of the book and discuss how it affects your understanding of the man and his message.

2. Analyzing a Book of Poetry

Up to this point, we've been closely reading individual poems. Today, let's begin to determine how poems work together to form the meaning of a book of poetry by dividing into 5 groups of 3-4 members; each group will be responsible for explicating one of Rainer Maria Rilke's Duino Elegies and theorizing how it fits into the book as a whole. First, groups will collaboratively write an informal response to the poem. Second, groups will share their findings with the class and we'll practice writing a thesis and outline explicating an elegy or two.

3. The Significance of a Work of Literature

We've practiced closely reading poems and short passages of fiction at length, and you're currently revising your close reading paper. For the next paper, in addition to literary explication and analysis, we're going to address the personal and cultural significance of literature. Let's review the elements of fiction and add a discussion of personal and cultural significance. Break into four groups. Groups should first discuss the following elements of fiction from the Literary Analysis handout:

  1. Group 1: Review the character questions and do a character sketch of Antoine Roquentin, particularly his internal conflicts, psychological traits, and philosophy of life.
  2. Group 2: Review the setting and imagery questions and examine how Roquentin's world affects his world view and how he describes his world.
  3. Group 3: Review the plot and structure questions and discuss the meaning of the novel's unconventional structure.
  4. Group 4: Review the point of view and tone questions and discuss the literary meaning of the novel's point of view and tonal issues.

In addition to discussing an element of fiction, each group should discuss the following issues and report back to the class:

4. From Close Reading to Significance Theses

While the close reading paper required a thesis that argued the literary work's theme, the significance paper should make a claim not only about the meaning of the text but also about the text's significance. Let's practice composing thesis statements in Thursday's class.

 

Individually, before Thursday's class, brainstorm the core conflict, overall meaning, and significance (ethical, political, philosophical, psychological, or cultural) of a work of literature that we've studied but you did not write your first paper on. Write a potential thesis that makes a claim of meaning and significance.

 

Collectively, during Thursday's class, you will be put in groups to receive feedback on your thesis and collectively write a thesis for a significance paper on Sartre's Nausea. Groups should comment on their members' thesis, discuss the second half of Nausea (particularly how Roquentin's struggle is resolved, what the book means, and how it's significant), and compose a thesis making a claim about the books theme and significance.

5. Film Analysis

We've discussed how drama employs different literary techniques than poetry and fiction. Film has it's own language as well. Let's practice interpreting film through its various techniques by breaking into four groups and discussing a different element of film according to the questions posed in the Film Analysis page.

6. Critical Approaches to Literature and Practice Annotation

So far, our course has focused on closely reading and determining the personal and cultural significance of existentialist literature while posing questions about the meaning of life, the burden of individual responsible, and the individual's and humanity's relationship with the world that guarantees neither reason nor purpose. There are quite a number of other approaches to literature besides formalism and existentialism, including but not limited to feminism and gender studies, queer theory, Marxist criticism, cultural studies, postcolonial criticism, historical criticism and New Historicism, psychoanalytic criticism, reader-response theory, structuralism, and poststructuralism and deconstruction. Let's examine Ingmar Bergman's Shame through the lens of the following theories.

 

First, divide into five groups.

 

Second, collaboratively write a 75-100 practice annotation for James Maxfield's "Bergman's Shame: A Dream of Punishment" that summarizes and evaluates the article by 1) identifying the question, issue, or topic that the essay is investigating, 2) defining the essay's thesis or conclusion regarding the play, and 3) explaining how the article helps your understanding of the play. You will share this annotation with the class.

 

Third, discuss the film through the lens of the your group's assigned interpretive approach, and report your conclusions to the class:

  1. Marxist Literary Criticism: How do socioeconomic conditions function in the fim? What are the social class roles? Are the characters alienated or reified? Does the film reinforce or criticize capitalist, imperialist, or classist values?
  2. Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism: What unconscious dreams and anxieties do the main characters in the film have, in other words, what motivations are they repressing? How do the main characters' sexualities and relationships with death define their identities?
  3. Feminist Literary Criticism and Gender Studies: How does the film portray men and women, and how does the film define masculinity and femininity?
  4. Reader-Response Criticism: How do the film and the viewer interact to create meaning? Are there gaps in the film that you have to fill? How your understanding of the meaning of the film change over the course or process of viewing the film? Analyze how the film intellectually and emotionally affects you, and reflect upon why it does so.
  5. Poststructuralist and Deconstructive Criticism: Does the film convey contradictory or unstable messages, for instance about a character, conflict, or theme? How is the meaning of the film unstable and subject to slippage?

7. TBA

TBA

Informal Responses

TBAThe goal of informal writing assignments is to help you to think actively and write critically about literature. These short assignments of 1-2 pages will also prepare you to write the longer, formal papers. You will be asked to analyze some element of literature (conflict, character, setting, imagery, figure of speech, etc.), respond to a thematic issue, or summarize scholarly criticism in preparation for formal papers and research projects.

 

Responses will be due by the start of class on the due date as a Word file in MLA style (here is a template; and here is how to convert) in GeorgiaVIEW > Course Work > Assignments > Informal Writing #. Retrieve your graded electronically submitted paper approximately one week after submission by logging into GeorgiaVIEW > Course Work > Assignments > Informal Writing #. Here is a grading rationale and calculation of informal writing assignments.

1. Practicing Close Reading

Choose a brief passage (a few sentences, a short paragraph) from the first half of Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground that you believe to be crucial to the meaning of the story so far. Closely read the passage. In other words, analyze the selection by attending to the subtle language cues like we've been practicing in class, discussing any symbols or imagery, evaluating any character thoughts or actions, exploring conflict, and speculating about what idea or theme the passage conveys. Due Thursday, August 31.

2. Questioning a Poem

First, choose one of the cummings or Dickinson poems assigned for Thursday's class. Second, analyze the various elements of the poem from pages 100-104 of Gardner and Diaz's Reading and Writing about Literature. Discuss the significance of the following issues, writing a couple of sentences for each:

  1. the speaker
  2. the listener
  3. imagery
  4. sound and sense (discuss any or all of the following as needed: rhyme, assonance and consonance, meter, form, stanzas, lineation)

Third, after breaking the poem down into its basic elements, try to sum up the meaning of the poem in a sentence or two. Due Thursday, September 7.

3. Analyzing a Book of Poetry

Up to this point, we've been closely reading individual poems. Today, let's determine how poems work together to form the meaning of a book of poetry by dividing into 5 groups of 3-4 members and each group will be assigned one of Rainer Maria Rilke's Duino Elegies. Elect a group secretary to take notes and submit the response to GeorgiaVIEW.

  1. Select your group's favorite passage (about 5-10 lines) from your group's assigned elegy from the first half of Rainer Maria Rilke's Duino Elegies.
  2. Orally, do a close reading of the passage like we've been practicing in class discussion and informal writings (5 minutes).
  3. Collaboratively write about the significant imagery, figures of speech, core conflict, and meaning of the 5-10 line passage (5 minutes, about one-third page).
  4. Then, comment on how the passage fits into the overall conflict and meaning of the poem (5 minutes, about one-third page).
  5. Finally, discuss how the passage and the poem fit into The Duino Elegies, addressing the meaning of the poetic sequence so far in the book (5 minutes, about one-third page). To be collaboratively written in class Thursday, September 14.

4. Critical Approaches to Literature or Practice Annotation

So far, our course has focused on closely reading and determining the personal and cultural significance of existentialist literature while posing questions about the meaning of life, the burden of individual responsible, and the individual's and humanity's relationship with the world that guarantees neither reason nor purpose. There are quite a number of other approaches to literature besides formalism and existentialism, including but not limited to feminism and gender studies, queer theory, Marxist criticism, cultural studies, postcolonial criticism, historical criticism and New Historicism, psychoanalytic criticism, reader-response theory, structuralism, and poststructuralism and deconstruction. Moreover, in your research project, you will be reading multiple interpretations of literary works, which use various critical methodologies, that you will need to summarize and evaluate. For this informal writing, you may either apply a critical approach to Bergman's Shame or outline and annotate Maxfield's journal article on Bergman's Shame.

 

Option 1 Applying a Critical Approach to a Film: Choose one of the five theories below and respond to Bergman's Shame using the questions posed here and the issues raised in the corresponding section of Gardner and Diaz's "Literary Criticism and Literary Theory" (170-83).

 

  1. Marxist Literary Criticism: How do socioeconomic conditions function in the fim? What are the social class roles? Are the characters alienated or reified? Does the film reinforce or criticize capitalist, imperialist, or classist values?
  2. Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism: What unconscious dreams and anxieties do the main characters in the film have, in other words, what motivations are they repressing? How do the main characters' sexualities and relationships with death define their identities?
  3. Feminist Literary Criticism and Gender Studies: How does the film portray men and women, and how does the film define masculinity and femininity?
  4. Reader-Response Criticism: How do the film and the viewer interact to create meaning? Are there gaps in the film that you have to fill? How your understanding of the meaning of the film change over the course or process of viewing the film? Analyze how the film intellectually and emotionally affects you, and reflect upon why it does so.
  5. Poststructuralist and Deconstructive Criticism: Does the film convey contradictory or unstable messages, for instance about a character, conflict, or theme? How is the meaning of the film unstable and subject to slippage?

Option 2 Outlining and Annotating a Journal Article: First, reverse outline Maxfield's "Bergman's Shame: A Dream of Punishment." In other words, list the main idea of each paragraph of the journal article. Second, write a 75-100 practice annotation that summarizes and evaluates the article by 1) identifying the question, issue, or topic that the essay is investigating, 2) defining the essay's thesis or conclusion regarding the film, and 3) explaining how the article helps your understanding of the play.

 

Due Tuesday, November 7.

5. Writing a Research Annotation

In order to practice writing an annotation for the annotated bibliography part of the research project, the final informal writing assignment will have both an individual and group component.

 

Individually, before class, read your Group Project's assigned article on Andrei Tarkovsky's Stalker (listed below), and then submit a reverse outline of the article (in other words, write the main idea for each paragraph of the article) to GeorgiaVIEW Informal Writing 5 assignment dropbox by 11:00 a.m. on Thursday, November 16; failure to submit by this time will result in half credit for the assignment.

 

Research groups, during class, will use the individual reverse outlines to collectively write a 75-100 word summary and evaluation of the article in class that 1) identifies the question, issue, or topic that the essay is investigating, 2) defines the source's thesis or conclusion regarding the play, and 3) explains how the article helps your understanding of the play. The collaborative writing component is due in GeorgiaVIEW Informal Writing 5 assignment dropbox by 12:15 p.m. on Thursday, November 16.

Due Thursday, November 16

Peer Responses

Goals

The dual goals of this course are for you to read and write about literature in a variety of manners. Informal writing and formal papers allow you to analyze the texts. Peer response sessions extend the reading and writing process by allowing you and your peers to engage in direct oral and written dialogue about matters of composition and interpretation, with the ultimate goal of improving your formal papers. You have the opportunity to revise your first two formal papers based upon comments by your peers and professor. You will provide constructive criticism to two or three other members of the class as will they to you. Here are the peer response templates for Paper 1 Close Reading, Paper 2 Significance, and Paper 3 Research.

 

Note: If a group member does not submit her paper to the GeorgiaVIEW discussion board in a format your computer can read, such as Word, at least two days before the peer response session, the rest of the group is not responsible for responding to her paper.

Paper 1 Peer Response

Here is the peer response process for Paper 1 Close Reading:

  1. On Thursday, September 21, writers upload their papers to both
    • GeorgiaVIEW > Discussions > Paper 1 Peer Response > Group # Topic
    • GeorgiaVIEW > Course Work > Assignments > Paper 1 Draft 1
  2. We will not be holding regular class during the peer response sessions. You need only attend class during your group's scheduled date and time, see below.
  3. Before the start of class on the assigned peer response day, peer reviewers read their fellow group members' papers, complete one Peer Response sheet for each of the three group member's papers, and upload the three Peer Response sheets to GeorgiaVIEW > Course Work > Assignments > Paper 1 Peer Responses (if you submit after the start of class, your response will be penalized as late).
  4. For the peer response session, either bring your laptop or paper print outs of the papers and your completed Peer Response sheets. Peer response groups should spend approximately 15 minutes reviewing each of the four writer's papers, providing oral feedback on Style and Grammar, Thesis and Controlling Idea, Close Reading, and Organization. If groups have time, you can also response to Voice, Successes and Weaknesses, and Quality and Creativity. At the end of class, all reviewers upload all completed Peer Response sheets to GeorgiaVIEW > Discussions > Paper 1 Peer Response > Group # Topic.

Here are the group meeting dates and times:

Paper 2 Peer Response

Here is the peer response process for Paper 2:

  1. On Thursday, October 12, writers upload their papers to both
    1. GeorgiaVIEW > Discussions > Paper 2 Peer Response > Group # Topic
    2. GeorgiaVIEW > Course Work > Assignments > Paper 2 Draft 1
  2. Before the start of class on Tuesday, October 17, peer reviewers read their three fellow group members' papers, complete one Peer Response sheet for each of the three group member's papers, and upload the three Peer Response sheets to GeorgiaVIEW > Course Work > Assignments > Paper 2 Peer Responses (if you submit after the start of class, your response will be penalized as late).
  3. For the peer response session on Tuesday, October 17, either bring your laptop or paper print outs of the papers and your completed Peer Response sheets. Peer response groups should spend approximately 15 minutes reviewing each of the four writer's papers, providing oral feedback on Style and Grammar, Thesis and Controlling Idea, Textual Analysis, Significance, and Organization. If groups have time, you can also response to Voice, Successes and Weaknesses, and Quality and Creativity. At the end of class, all reviewers upload all completed Peer Response sheets to GeorgiaVIEW > Discussions > Paper 2 Peer Response > Group # Topic.

Here are the groups (all groups meet Tuesday, October 17):

Paper 3 Peer Response

Here is the peer response process for Paper 3:

  1. On Tuesday, November 28, writers upload their papers to GeorgiaVIEW > Discussions > Group Project - Group #
  2. Before the start of class on Thursday, November 30, peer reviewers read their three fellow group members' papers, complete one Peer Response sheet for each of the three group member's papers, and upload the three Peer Response sheets to GeorgiaVIEW > Course Work > Assignments > Paper 3 Peer Response (if you submit after the start of class, your response will be penalized as late).
  3. For the peer response session on Thursday, November 30, either bring your laptop or paper print outs of the papers and your completed Peer Response sheets. Peer response groups should spend approximately 15 minutes reviewing each of the four writer's papers, providing oral feedback on Style and Grammar, Thesis and Controlling Idea, Textual Analysis, Research, and Organization. If groups have time, you can also response to Voice, Successes and Weaknesses, and Quality and Creativity. At the end of class, all reviewers upload all completed Peer Response sheets to GeorgiaVIEW > Discussions > Group Project - Group #.

Here are the groups (all groups meet Thursday, November 30):

Paper 1 Close Reading

We have discussed at length poems by Rilker, Hemingway, Kafka, Bishop, Rich, Dostoevsky, cummings, and Dickinson. You have written about some of these works in your informal responses. Now is your opportunity to rigorously analyze a work of literature. For the first formal paper, write a four-five page essay that either 1) explicates, line-by-line, a short poem assigned on the syllabus, being sure to illuminate, through nuanced reading of figurative language, diction, connotation, and symbol, how the central tensions, ambiguities, and contradictions constitute a cohesive theme or 2) examines the most important passage in one of the short stories we have read so far, interpreting it sentence-by-sentence through nuanced reading of figurative language, diction, connotation, and symbol, and arguing its centrality to the core conflicts, character, and overall theme of the story. In other words, using either this short poem or this short story key passage, you should write a paper that interprets the universal theme of the work by explicating the fundamental conflicts within the particular lines of text. Your essay should be driven by a thesis that argues the work's theme and logically organized by close reading of the text: unpack the tension and conflict, connotation and diction, idea and theme.

 

1. Pick any poem or work of fiction on the syllabus up to Tuesday, September 19.

2. Do a close reading/textual analysis of the poem or key story passage that explicates particular, significant words and lines.

3. Interpret the key conflict and overall theme/meaning/idea of the work of literature.

 

Note: You will write at least one draft of this paper and have the option of revising. The first draft, which will also be reviewed by your peers, will be given a tentative grade. If you choose to revise, the second draft grade will replace the first. If you earn an F on the first draft, you must revise, otherwise you will fail the course.

Parameters

Paper 2 Significance

In the first formal paper, you closely read a poem or short story passage and in so doing explicated how the literary language set up the core conflict and overall theme. In the second formal paper, you will also interpret the conflict and main idea of a literary work of your choice on the syllabus up to Thursday, October 5, but not the one on which you wrote your first paper. Beyond simply discussing the issues, you will also examine the text's personal or cultural significance, in other words, its meaning in either your life or the lives of others. Discuss either why this work of literature is important to you or why this work is or should be important to the world. Some questions to consider include but are not limited to: Why is the literary work important—or not? What ethical, political, philosophical, psychological, or cultural consequences does the text have? Who do you think should read this work, why do you think they need to read it, and how do you think it will affect them? How has the work of literature confronted, challenged, or changed either your world view or the belief system held by the particular audience? Your thesis should make a claim not only about the meaning of the text but also about the text's significance. Your paper should not only analyze the meaning of the work through textual evidence but also argue the text's significance.

  1. Select any work of literature on the syllabus up to October 5, but not one already written about in Paper 1.
  2. Using textual evidence, analyze the core conflict and key meaning of the literary work.
  3. Argue why and how the literary work is significant either personally or culturally.

Note: You will write at least one draft of this paper and have the option of revising. The first draft, which will also be reviewed by your peers, will be given a tentative grade. If you choose to revise, the second draft grade will replace the first. If you earn an F on the first draft, you must revise, otherwise you will fail the course.

Parameters

Group Project

Groups of 4 will choose an existential work of literature from the assigned genre (poetry, fiction, drama, film), compile a 16 source annotated bibliography of scholarly literary criticism on the text, write a 4-6 page paper summarizing the literary interpretations and debate on the text, and share their findings with the class in a 20 minute presentation and 10 minute question and answer session.

 

Individual group members may write their research paper on the same literary work as their group project text as long as each group member proves her own distinct topic; or they may choose another existential text which they've not previously studied in high school or college, subject to professor approval.

Timeline

Week

Date

Due

Week 9

October 17

sign up

Week 10

October 26

topic

Week 11

November 2

bibliography

plan of action

Week 13

November 14

group conferences

Week 14

November 21

optional research paper thesis/outline and peer response

Week 15

November 28

mandatory research paper

November 30

research paper peer response

Week 16

December 5

group presentations 1-2

December 7

group presentations 3-4

Finals

December 12

research paper

1. Sign Up

On Tuesday, October 17, you will self-select your groups of 4 students. Those who have no preference and those who are absent will be placed in a group by the professor.

 

Group

Students

Group 1 Poetry

Eliot, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

1 Jessica Allen

2 Becca Fallon

3 Cassie Gray

4 Haley Johnson

Group 2 Fiction

Ellison, Invisible Man

5 Madelyn Cameron

6 Reynolds Langstaff

7 Lauren Lyles

8 Jordan Milam

Group 3 Drama

O'Neill, The Iceman Cometh

9 Rachel Brown

10 Dia Gault

11 Hawke Kuene

12 Samuel Tucker

Group 4 Film

Weir, The Truman Show

13 Rachel Morgan

14 Emili Pinson

15 Erin Sinatra

16 McKenna Yearick

2. Topic

Poetry groups will select a few poems or a book of poetry by a single poet; fiction groups will select a couple of short stories, a short story collection, or a novel by a single author; drama groups will select a full length play by a playwright. Groups may not select works previously researched by members in high school. In other words, choose an author and work you have not studied other classes.

 

On Thursday, October 27, groups will two possible choices of literary works to GeorgiaVIEW > Course Assignments > Assignments > Group Project, and the professor will advise and approve the final selection based upon appropriateness and researchability.

 

Here is a list of existential works from which to choose. You may research a work not listed, subject to professor approval.

3. Bibliography and Plan of Action

On Thursday, November 2, groups will submit to GeorgiaVIEW > Course Work > Assignments > Group Project

  1. a 20 source bibliographical list in MLA Format of approximately half scholarly books from the GCSU and USG libraries and approximately half scholarly journal articles from databases like Academic Search Complete using the Literary Research Methods handout.
    • Do not submit primary texts by the author, encyclopedia entries, magazine articles, newspaper articles, book reviews, websites, or study guides like Sparknotes and MasterPlots, or plagiarism paper mills.
    • While other professors might consider encyclopedias, newspapers, magazines, and website study guides to be appropriate for college level research, I deem academic books and peer reviewed journal articles the only appropriate sources for scholarly research.
  2. a plan of action listing when the group will meet outside of class as well as each group member's responsibilities

4. Conference

On Tuesday, November 14 groups will conference with the professor on their projects.

 

For the group conference, groups will

  1. discuss the status of your group project, including meeting times and individual member responsibilities, and
  2. provide the final group bibliography, in MLA format (no annotations necessary yet, the annotations will be submitted on the day of the group presentation).

Individual group members will

  1. compose a working thesis for their individual Paper 3 Research.

5. Presentation, Annotated Bibliography, Debate Paper

On Tuesday, December 5, and Thursday, December 7, groups will teach the class their selected literary works in a 20 minute presentation with a 10 minute question and answer session. On the day of the presentation, one group member will submit the group's 16 source annotated bibliography (4 sources per group member) and their 4-6 page literary debate paper to GeorgiaVIEW > Assignents > Group Project. Be sure to put the annotated bibliography and literary debate paper in one file.

 

Your presentation may use any of the equipment in our room (chalkboard, projector, speakers, web browser, Powerpoint, DVD). Brief clips like YouTube may be used but do not count toward the 20 minute time limit.

 

An annotated bibliography is an MLA styled works cited list of scholarly books, book chapters, and peer-reviewed journal articles that provides a 75-100 word summary of each secondary source's argument as well as how the secondary source interprets and illuminates the meaning of the primary text, i.e., the literary work. Do not simply summarize the topic, provide the thesis. I recommend answering the following questions:

  1. What question, issue, or topic is the source investigating?
  2. What is the source's thesis or conclusion regarding the work of literature?
  3. How does the source help your understanding of the work of literature?

And I suggest using this template.

 

A literary debate paper summarizes the literary research findings, poses the predominant questions literary critics ask about the meaning of the literary work, and argues the opposing ways of interpreting the primary text.

 

Submit the bibliography and paper as one file to GeorgiaVIEW > Group Project on the day of your presentation. Retrieve your graded project approximately one week later in GeorgiaVIEW > Group Projects.

6. Group Policy

Each group member is responsible for staying connected with the group, attending meetings, actively participating in meetings, doing her delegated work, i.e., contributing her fair share to the project. In order to hold singular members accountable in a team project, each group member should individually compose and submit to GeorgiaVIEW > Dropbox > Group Project - Individual Evaluation a paragraph that assesses their own performance and their peers' service to the assignment. If it becomes apparent that a group member did not participate (skipped meetings, didn't complete her assigned work, etc.), that member will be assessed individually rather than receive the group grade.

Paper 3 Research

In the first formal paper, you analyzed a particular passage, and in the second paper you not only analyzed but also evaluated the significance of a literary work. In the third paper, you will not only explicate a work of literature but also engage and incorporate what literary critics find meaningful and significant about a work of literature in order to support and expand your own interpretation. For the research paper, select a literary work with existential themes that you have neither studied in high school nor have written about in this class or any other class; then clear your choice with your professor. Possible literary works with existential themes are listed under the group project topics. (If you submit a paper that you wrote for another class, you will fail the assignment and the course.) You may write about the same literary work as your group project, but you may not write on the same issues as your fellow group members.

 

Write an in depth analysis and interpretation of an issue (some meaning that is in dispute, some interpretation that is open to debate, or a key conflict in the text) that both you and literary critics find provocative. Your paper should integrate at least 5 works of scholarly criticism (journal articles, books, and book chapters) to provide support and counterargument for your reading of the issue.

 

The threefold emphasis of this paper is your thoughtful evaluation of the issue at work in the text via rigorous analysis of the text and the use the secondary sources to aid and challenge your interpretation and critical judgment.

 

You submitted the previous formal papers to both your peers and professor for review (and a tentative grade from your professor) in order to develop the best compositional practice of drafting and revision. In this paper, in order to prepare you for regular, non-composition classes in which the professor only grades the final paper, you will be expected to draft and revise on your own with only the help of your peers and without the first draft grade from your professor.

Parameters